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What Determines Cross-Country Access to Antiretroviral Treatment?

Year: 2006
Author: Nattrass, Nicoli
Unit: ASRU
Journal: Development Policy Review
Volume: 24
Issue: 3
Pages: 321-337

Despite the recent international effort to expand access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developing countries, its coverage still varies significantly from country to country and is strongly correlated with per capita income. However, regional and political variables are also important. Cross-country regressions indicate that, controlling for political and economic characteristics and the scale of the HIV epidemic, Latin American and African countries have better coverage than predicted. Whereas the level of HIV prevalence was a significantly (negative) factor when accounting for HAART coverage in June 2004, this effect had disappeared by December 2004. The improvement appears to have benefited democratic countries in particular.